Showing posts with label water supply. Show all posts
Showing posts with label water supply. Show all posts

17 Oct 2012

Haba na Haba on water supply, featuring Daraja and Tawasanet

BBC Media Action (formerly the World Service Trust) are producing a radio show at the moment - Haba na Haba - that aims to facilitate dialogue between ordinary people and their leaders. The latest show in the series looked at water supply, and featured interviews with, among others, Daraja's Sauli Gilliard and the chair of Tawasanet Deus Masige.



25 Jun 2012

Guest Post: Hotuba ya bajeti ya maji itoe majibu ya maswali haya

A guest post from Daraja's Richard Lucas, Programme Manager of the Maji Matone programme.


Hotuba ya bajeti ya maji itoe majibu ya maswali haya 
Katuni ya HabariLeo, tarehe 20 Juni, 2012

Mnamo tarehe 31, Mei 2012, kwenye gazeti la Mwananchi, mhariri alichapisha barua ya mwananchi wa kijiji cha Rungwa yenye kichwa cha habari ‘Waziri Mkuu tusaidie tupate maji’. Katika barua hii mwananchi huyu anamwomba Waziri Mkuu awasaidie kupata maji, maana kumekuwa na mkakati wa kuwaletea maji kwa miaka mingi ambao haujafanikiwa. Anaeleza kuwa mkakati huo ulikuwa ni wa kuwaletea mradi wa benki ya dunia ambapo walipaswa kuchanga asilimia tano ya gharama za mradi. Fedha hizo wameshazikamilisha miaka miwili iliyopita lakini hakuna kinachoendelea.

Kilio cha mwananchi huyu, ni kilio cha wananchi wengi katika kila wilaya. Serikali kupitia Programu ya Maendeleo ya Sekta ya Maji ilipanga kupatia vijiji kumi kila wilaya miradi ya maji. Washauri walichaguliwa, wakafanya tathmini, wakatengeneza michoro na kisha kuwahamasisha wananchi kujipanga na kuchangia asilimia kati ya 2.5 hadi 5 kutokana na aina ya mradi. Mchakato huu umekamilika takribani miaka mitatu iliyokwisha lakini miradi hii haitekelezwi.

Bajeti ya Maji

Mwaka wa fedha unaoisha (2011/12) serikali ilitenga bajeti ya sh 621.6 bilioni kwenye sekta ya maji ambapo katika hizo sh 86.7 bilioni zilielekezwa katika ujenzi wa miradi ya maji ya vijiji kumi kwenye serikali za mitaa. Sina uhakika kuwa fedha hizi zilitosha miradi kwenye vijiji vingapi, lakini Waziri mwenye dhamana anapaswa kutolea majibu swali hili kwenye hotuba ya bajeti ya maji. Pamoja na swali hili la msingi, tunataka Waziri atumie fursa hiyo kuwaeleza wananchi kinagaubaga hatima ya miradi ya vijiji kumi. Taarifa hizi ni muhimu kuwafikia wananchi kwa kuwa tayari wamekata tamaa, hawapo tayari kushirikiana na watendaji wa serikali kuhusu masuala ya maji.

Wakati bajeti ya nchi imeongezeka kufikia trilioni 15 kwa mwaka wa fedha 2012/13, serikali inakusudia kutenga sh 568.8 bilioni kwa ajili ya sekta ya maji, ambapo fedha hizo zimepungua kwa sh 52.8 toka bajeti inayokwisha. Bajeti hii inazidi kuwa pungufu zaidi endapo tutazingatia suala la mfumuko wa bei. Wazo hapa sio namna gani hii bajeti ni kidogo, bali ni namna gani bajeti hii imelenga kutatua kero za muda mrefu za maji. Ni vipaumbele gani ambavyo bajeti hii imelenga? Je malengo ya bajeti hii ndio matatizo ya makuu ya wananchi?

Changamoto ya usambazaji maji vijijini

Kutodumu kwa miundombinu ya maji ni changamoto kubwa katika jitihada za kuongeza upatikanaji maji safi na salama hasa vijijini. Kasi ya kuharibika kwa miradi ya maji inaweza kuwa sambamba na kasi yetu katika kujenga miradi mipya ya maji. Bajeti inayokuja ilenge kupambana na tatizo la kutodumu kwa miradi na miundombinu ya maji. Takwimu zinaonesha kuwa kwa miradi mipya, asilimia 25 inakuwa haifanyi kazi baada ya miaka miwili. Zipo sababu mbalimbali zinazosababisha tatizo hili, ambazo zinahitaji kufanyiwa jitihada za dhati kupambana nazo.

Bajeti  ya maji izingatie nini

Mambo muhimu ya kuzingatia kwa sasa ni ufahamu na utekelezaji wa sera mpya ya maji (ya mwaka 2002) na sheria namba 12 ya mwaka 2009. Haya yafanyike kwa kuboresha mifumo pamoja na kuwajengea uwezo watumishi waweze kutekeleza majukumu yao kama yalivyoainishwa katika sera hizi. Zaidi juhudi za makusudi zifanyike kuwawezesha wananchi kufahamu taarifa za sera hizi, watambue majukumu yao ili waweze kuyatekeleza. Zaidi ya hapo inaonekana serikali inajenga miradi na kuitelekeza kwa wananchi.

Pia bajeti ilenge kuboresha uwezo halmashauri kufanya ufuatiliaji wa maendeleo ya miradi ya maji inayoendeshwa na wananchi. Ufuatiliaji utawezesha halmashauri kutambua matatizo ya wananchi katika kuendesha miradi ya maji, na vile vile kuwawezesha kutimiza wajibu wao wa kusaidia na kushauri waendeshaji wa miradi ya maji vijijini. Miradi mingi inakumbwa na migogoro ambayo inasababisha miradi hiyo kuzorota na kufa. Halmashauri nyingi zinalalamika kutokuwa na rasilimali fedha na nyingine za kuwawezesha kusimamia na kushauri jamii katika uendeshaji wa miradi ya maji.

Jambo jingine ni uundwaji na usaijili wa vyombo vya watumia maji (COWSOs). Bajeti hii itenge fedha za kuwajengea uwezo wasajili walioteuliwa na halmashauri. Wasajili hawa wameteuliwa lakini hawafahamu vizuri sheria za maji, na hasa majukumu yao katika kusajili vyombo hivi. Pia, wahamasishaji wajengewe uwezo kuhusu sera, mipango, mikakati, sheria na mambo mengine muhimu yanayohusu maji ili waweze kuandaa wananchi kuunda vyombo thabiti vitakavyodumu. Tusipozingatia hili, miaka michache tutakuwa tunaongelea tatizo la kutodumu kwa vyombo hivi vya watumia maji (COWSO).

Haya ni baadhi ya mambo machache ya kimfumo ambayo yakifanyiwa kazi tunaweza kupiga hatua kubwa katika kutatua changamoto ya kutodumu kwa mifumo/miundombinu/miradi ya maji.

Tukumbuke kuwa wananchi wanahitaji maji na sio mikakati.



Richard Lucas anapatikana kwa email kupitia richardlucas@daraja.org  



22 Mar 2012

Maji Week, World Water Day, what more can we say?


Photo from Tanzania Journalists' Alliance
Over the past two years, this blog has repeatedly looked at Tanzania's water sector. We've looked at survey data on the state of water supply services, at citizens' attitudes to water and sanitation issues, at how the media and politicians engage in the sector, and at how the sector as a whole operates.

Today is World Water Day, the culmination of Maji Week, with the national "celebrations" taking place this year in Iringa. But rather than look for another aspect of the sector to analyse, let's look back at what this blog has said about Tanzania's water sector over the past two years, with 10 interesting facts about rural water supply:

19 Mar 2012

Tunaadhimisha wiki ya maji bila maji!

Na Richard Lucas


Tupo kwenye kuadhimisha wiki ya maji kitaifa ambapo kitaifa maadhimisho haya yanafanyika mkoani Iringa. Kauli mbiu ya mwaka huu ni Maji Safi ya Kunywa kwa Uhakika wa Chakula. Kwa miaka mingi serikali imekuwa ikifanya jitihada mbalimbali kuhakikisha wananchi tunapata maji safi na salama. Maadhimisho ya wiki ya maji ni mojawapo ya jitihada, ambapo kwangu mimi naona inalenga kutoa elimu na fursa kwa wadau mbalimbali weweze kujadili namna ya kuboresha huduma hii hasa kwa maeneo ya vijijini ambapo imendeelea kuwa ndoto. Swali ni kuwa, kwetu sisi wananchi maadhimisho ya maji yanapaswa kutusaidia nini?

8 Mar 2012

The world is doing well on water supply, but leaving Tanzania behind

Globally, the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for water supply has been met. A new report from UN Water, UNICEF and the World Health Organisation, launched this week, reported that 89% of the world's population now has access to water from an improved source. This has quite rightly been a cause for celebration and media coverage (see here and here from the (UK) Guardian, and from the BBC), a rare good news story.

But here in Tanzania, we can't share in the celebrations. The official UN estimates of access to clean and safe water in Tanzania, taken from the same new report that produced the MDG headlines, show that in Tanzania access has hardly changed since 1990, or even declined - see table and chart. 

27 Feb 2012

So what have we learnt? Summarising lessons from Maji Matone Phase 1

I realise that this blog has already devoted a lot of space to the recent failure of our Maji Matone programme. Or to be more precise, to the failure of the programme's first phase. Another post risks boring readers by going over the same ground. But previous posts have left some lose ends that need tying up, and we shouldn't forget that the programme has had some successes as well as failures. So it's time for one final post in this series*, trying to bring together all the main lessons from the programme in one place and looking forward to Maji Matone Phase 2. 

So what did we learn?

23 Feb 2012

Independent monitoring of Dar's water supply

Would you believe someone who said they had just had one drink? Or would you prefer to ask someone else who had seen them in the bar? I know who I would believe.

So who would you trust more to tell you about the state of public services: the government department responsible for delivering those services, or someone independent? 

In both cases, independent monitoring, (or at least independent verification), is likely to produce much more trustworthy results. 

Which is why some new data on water supplies in Dar es Salaam from a World Bank-financed survey is very interesting - part of the Mobile Phone Public Services Monitoring Survey, previously under Twaweza. It contradicts official data from the Ministry of Water and DAWASCO in several ways. Analysts in the sector had always assumed that this official data was unreliable, but had always used it anyway because there was no alternative, better, independent data to work with. 

13 Feb 2012

Why did Maji Matone fail? 2. The world of water supply?

This is the second post in a series exploring possible reasons why Maji Matone hasn't worked. The previous post looked at the challenge of making the technology fit the context, specifically rural Tanzania. And the final post, (now available), will look at citizens' engagement, risk and apathy.

Why did Maji Matone fail? 2. The world of water supply?

People outside the water sector often take the view that delivering water to people should be easy. Drill a borehole, install a pump and some pipes, and you're done. Those who work in the water sector know that it's not so simple. Just as the difficult bit in Maji Matone was not finding the right technology, the difficult bit in rural water supply is about people - how the borehole, pump and pipes should be managed so that they last.

6 Dec 2011

Rural water supply in Tanzania since independence, and for the next 50 years

Photo from www.juliusnyerere.info
It is, quite rightly, the season for raising our eyes and looking up at the horizon. December 9th, 2011 will mark 50 years since the British flag came down on Tanganyika and the country's life as an independent nation began. So what better time to think a little further than the hot political issue of the day (which is usually forgotten within a week or two) or even most NGOs' furthest horizon - the 5 year strategic plan?

There are plenty of others who are better placed to assess Tanzania's past achievements and future prospects in political or economic terms, so I won't trespass on their terrain. But I can say something about rural water supply. In particular, I have identified two themes of change in the sector - covering the past 50 years and the next - that I think may be of interest.

17 Nov 2011

Consulting on open government - time to send your ideas

Submit your ideas on open government at wananchi.go.tz
As those of you who follow Daraja closely will know, I spent Tuesday this week at a meeting convened by the Tanzania Open Government Partnership (OGP) Task Force - see here and here for some background on the OGP from this blog, or here (pdf) for a presentation to the Cabinet on the subject. The meeting was to consult civil society and other stakeholders on the Action Plan that Tanzania will take next month to the OGP secretariat at a meeting in Brazil.

The political leadership behind this initiative is impressive, both within and beyond Tanzania. Presidents Obama and Roussef (of Brazil) are driving things internationally, with support from Tanzania's own Rakesh Rajani of Twaweza, representing civil society, and several countries are really pushing ambitious plans - the UK government, for example, says it wants to be "the most open and transparent government in the world".

14 Nov 2011

The politics of water supply are coming to the boil

Mohammed Dewji helps out. Photo from wavuti.com
This blog has long argued that the major challenges in the water sector are more political than technical. We have also highlighted the fact that the political nature of the challenges has not been matched by political attention. Water supply was largely ignored in the 2010 election campaigns, for example, not featuring in the major campaign promises of any of the big three parties' presidential candidates nor gaining much attention in election media coverage (here and here).

Now, four separate developments in the past few weeks point to a change in the politics of water supply in Tanzania. So what are the new developments, and what is the change that they point to?

11 Nov 2011

Violence in Ludewa caused by dissatisfaction with the Water Sector Development Programme

The following email was distributed last week to the Wanabidii email group, with a very interesting perspective on some of the challenges facing the Water Sector Development Programme. I can't guarantee all the precise details of the story told, though I do have independent confirmation of the basic facts.

I felt that the email deserves to be seen by a wider audience, particularly those with an interest in Tanzania's water sector, as it sheds some additional urgency on the challenges highlighted on this blog recently.

25 Oct 2011

"Undertaking" Tanzania's Water Sector Development Programme?

Screenshot from WaterAid video
I spent two days last week at the annual Joint Water Sector Review meeting - the so-called "highlight" of the annual calendar of "dialogue". This was the sixth such meeting to be held - and I have the "distinction" of having attended all of them. But as you can probably guess from the profusion of "inverted commas" in this paragraph, I'm having serious doubts about the whole exercise. Before I come to that, though, let me give you some background.

Around 250 people from the Ministry of Water, other related government ministries and agencies, the "development partners" and civil society all attended, in the workshop factory that is Ubungo Plaza. All the main stakeholders were there. Apart from water consumers that is, who are only represented in the sense that everyone consumes water. And those consumers (or perhaps I should call them citizens) weren't represented by their official representatives either - no MPs or local councillors attend, with the exception of the Ministers officiating at the formal opening and closing sessions. We civil society folks had to take on that role.

20 Oct 2011

Two great videos on rural water supply

I have two videos to share with you, since I've been in Dar and have therefore had access to a quick enough internet connection to deal with such things.

First up, an excellent short documentary (just over 15 minutes) from my former colleagues at WaterAid Tanzania on the state of the Water Sector Development Programme - on which I will also be writing shortly. Some of this is pretty hard hitting, particularly with many of the most critical comments coming from District Water Engineers and MPs.

13 Oct 2011

Tawasanet's growing pains

The Tanzania Water and Sanitation Network (Tawasanet) has had a pretty challenging year. Their founding chairperson left the network, their replacement passed away a few months later, not long after which the network parted company with its only two employees in an uncomfortable breakup. Relations between the board and member organisations suffered as a result, there is an ongoing court-case, and preparing an annual report and audited financial statements was by all accounts a very challenging process.

It's a shame to see these troubles, as there is still a clear need for a strong national civil society voice in the Tanzanian water and sanitation sector, which is dominated by government, development partners and a few international NGOs. And as we all know, the sector has a lot of problems, many of which are in areas where civil society has a valuable perspective and experience to contribute - reorienting the sector to be more pro-poor and prioritising sustainability, to name just two.

9 Jun 2011

Answering the wrong question - privatisation and the right to water

The UN General Assembly recently adopted a resolution recognising the "right to water". On the face of it, this is hardly a controversial resolution, since who would oppose something as obviously vital as water. But dig a little deeper, and there are some tricky issues here.

For many advocates of this right, the UN resolution has been used as an opportunity to re-open the privatisation debate that burned strongly and divided many over the past two decades. A recent special issue (No. 533) of Pambazuka, a magazine promoting freedom and social justice in Africa, focuses on "Water and Privatisation", aiming to do just that. The argument is that if water is a basic human right, surely it should be available for free. Or at least, multinational corporations should not be allowed to profit from its provision.

12 May 2011

Daraja's Maji Matone programme, as presented by Ben Taylor (video)

This video was recorded so I could participate in a student seminar in UCLA, California, and make a presentation to Twaweza's Advisory Board in Dar es Salaam, all without leaving the lovely, if remote, town of Njombe.


Ben Taylor on Maji Matone, May 2011 from Ben Taylor on Vimeo.

For Twaweza Board Members and UCLA students, the downside to this approach is that I can't respond to questions in person. But please add any comments or questions you may have in the comments section below, either in the facebook section or the comments box further down the page, and I'll do my best to get back to you.

22 Apr 2011

Mapping for Results - what does this World Bank project tell us about Tanzania?

A lot of people have been pushing recently at the link between mapping and accountability. Whether it's detailed local maps of reported crime in the UK or East Africa's own Ushahidi platform, the internet and mobile phones are enabling new map-based ways of collecting, visualising and sharing information that can potentially be used to hold decision makers to account.

The most recent example comes from the World Bank. They recently published their Mapping for Results site, which presents (on a map, of course) details of 1250 current World Bank-financed projects in over 16,000 locations in 79 countries. Each location has a marker that can be clicked to reveal more details of the project and its location.

For Tanzania, the map shows 40 financed activities in 524 locations:

Mapping for Results - Tanzania map (click to enlarge)

5 Apr 2011

Daraja / Maji Matone presented at World Bank ICT Days

Daraja was invited to make a presentation last week at the World Bank's ICT* Days in Washington. (Thanks to Twaweza for putting us forward for this.)

Rather than travel all that way for an 8 minute presentation, I was able to present from the Bank's Dar es Salaam office via Video-Conference. My presentation is below.


* For this conference, ICT is both a standard acronym (Information and Communication Technologies) and a more unusual one: Innovate, Connect, Transform.

30 Mar 2011

More funding for the water sector must be good news, surely?

The Ministry of Water had an important visitor last week - President Jakaya Kikwete himself. Like any good visitor, he came bearing gifts, pretty impressive ones at that. Reports differ on the precise amount promised, but whether it's "between 500 and 700 billion shillings" (The Citizen) or a straight "700 billion" (The Guardian), this is serious money. The Ministry's budget for the current financial year is "only" 300 billion, itself a major increase compared to just a few years earlier.

Surely this is good news. After all, as this blog has argued previously, the sector lacks political attention, services in both rural and urban areas are poor, and existing funding is only a drop in the ocean compared what's required to solve these problems.